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                              2018年翻譯資格考試三級筆譯模擬題:經濟合作

                              中華考試網   2018-10-23   【

                              2018年翻譯資格考試三級筆譯模擬題:經濟合作

                                第一篇

                                漢譯英

                                多邊合作是解決全球金融失衡的關鍵所在

                                與20世紀90年代資本流動激增的情況相比,當前私人資本流動的激增伴隨著國內政策和全球金融狀況的大幅改善。在這一過程中,各國政府迄今都盡量避免出現總需求過度擴張、經常項目巨額赤字和實際匯率大幅升值的情況。但是,管理資本流動的政策議程既廣泛,又復雜,依然存在重大挑戰。

                                許多國家的資本管制和匯率限制錯綜復雜,在簡化這些措施方面,已經取得了進展。但是,在逐步開放資本項目的網時,必須進一步加強宏觀經濟政策,發展本國資本市場和市場監管的相應制度,建立一個有力的風險管理體系,應對匯率制度更靈活、資本項目更開放所帶來的需求。資本項目一旦開放,就難以逆轉。重返資本管制應該被看作最后的政策舉措,只是用來抑制匯率的過度波動,或者是在利率和干預外匯市場等政策證明無效時,用來調節資本的大量流入。

                                雖然近年來在政策方面進行了較大改進,資本流動的激增依然給發展中國家帶來了重大風險。與過去遇到的風險有所不同,經濟和金融穩定今后面臨的風險很可能改頭換面,也可能暴露出現在還無法預料的制度和宏觀經濟的薄弱環節。可能出現麻煩的一個警報信號是,隨著證券投資流入的激增,許多發展中國家,尤其是亞洲的股票市場價格和估值大幅攀升,從而增加了資本價格出現泡沫的風險。其它可能出現麻煩的跡象是,東歐一些國家的匯率升值,經常項目赤字增加。如果幾種風險同時出現,則單個風險的影響就會放大。

                                國際社會應該繼續努力,推動發展中國家的各項政策,以實現穩定,保持一個有利于發展中國家以均衡的方式擴大和利用資本流動的金融環境。影響穩定的一個主要風險是全球支付體系的不斷失衡,市場隨之會擔心失衡現象有可能帶來通過突然改變匯率和全球利率的無序調整。這種變化可能會造成國際金融市場的不穩定和混亂,結果將給所有國家帶來不利影響。

                                雖然采取協調政策對外匯市場進行干預既不可取,也不可行,但是要解決目前的全球失衡問題,進行一定程度的多邊合作還是必要的。這種做法基于逆差國和順差國的共同利益,應該反映國際儲備貨幣和其它貨幣之間的結構性不對稱。其核心問題在于如何形成共識,采取綜合調整措施,重新平衡全球總需求,同時避免引發全球經濟衰退。一般而言,關鍵國家之間進行政策協調并無必要,因為浮動匯率、配套的貨幣政策以及獨立的中央銀行等因素,都能夠針對世界經濟所遭受的沖擊而進行調整。然而,如果解決全球支付失衡的融資渠道的可持續性受到質疑,正如當前形勢一樣,那么開展多邊合作,預防突然、無序的市場反應,就是非常可取的舉措,尤其是考慮到不斷增加的全球失衡給一些國家帶來了貿易保護主義政策的壓力。

                                對于發展中國家來說,開展多邊合作,它們尤其可以從中獲益良多;反之,則受損多多。如果經濟不穩定,全球金融失衡出現無序發展,這些國家就會遭到更巨大的重創。世界經濟正在走向一個多極化的國際貨幣體系,其中美國、歐元區、日本以及包括中國在內的幾個重要新興市場經濟體的貨幣和金融政策,都在發揮著重大影響。因此,新興市場經濟體的政策制定者應該努力強化制度,推動有利的政策機制,在世界金融和生產體系一體化程度和相互依存度越來越高的情況下,提高自身的參與能力。

                                參考譯文

                                Multilateral Cooperation Is Key to Resolving Global Financial Imbalances

                                The current surge in private capital flows has occurred in the midst of much-improved domestic policies and global financial conditions compared with those that prevailed during the capital flows surge of the l990s. 1 This time around, governments have so far generally managed to avoid excessive expansion of aggregate demand, large current-account deficits, and sharp appreciations of the real exchange rate. However, the policy agenda for managing capital flows is broad and complex, and considerable challenges remain.

                                Progress has been made in simplifying the very complex web of capital controls and exchange rate restrictions imposed by many countries. 2 But the gradual opening of capital accounts must be accompanied by a further strengthening of macroeconomic policies, the development of local capital markets and the institutions needed to regulate them, and the establishment of a system of risk management robust enough to respond to the needs of a more flexible exchange rate and open capital account. 3 Liberalization of the capital account once implemented is difficult to reverse. A return to capital controls should be seen only as a policy of last resort, to be used to dampen excessive exchange rate volatility or to moderate large inflows of capital when other policies, such as interest rates and intervention in foreign exchange markets, prove fruitless.

                                Despite the considerable improvement in policies in recent years, the surge in capital flows still presents substantial risks to developing countries. Future risks to economic and financial stability will likely take a different form and character4 than those encountered in the past - and may expose institutional and macroeconomic weaknesses that cannot be anticipated at this juncture. One warning sign of potential troubles has been the surge in portfolio inflows that has been associated with a dramatic escalation of stock market prices and valuations in many developing countries5, particularly in Asia, raising the risk of asset price bubbles. Other signs of possible trouble are appreciated exchange rates and current account deficits in some Eastern European countries. The impact of individual risks could be magnified if several were to occur simultaneously.

                                Developing-country policies must be reinforced by renewed international efforts to promote stability and maintain a financial environment conducive to a balanced expansion and deployment6 of capital flows in developing countries. One major risk to stability is the growing imbalance in global payments and the associated market anxiety/ about the possibility of a disorderly adjustment of the imbalance through sudden changes in exchange rates and global interest rates. Such changes could destabilize and disrupt international financial markets, which would cause all countries to suffer.

                                Although a coordinated policy of intervention in foreign currency markets is neither desirable nor feasible, a degree of multilateral cooperation is needed to address the current global imbalances. That approach, based on the mutual interests of deficit and surplus countries, should reflect the structural asymmetry between international reserve currencies and other currencies. At its center must be consensus on a blend of adjustments8 adequate to rebalance global aggregate demand without causing a global recession. Ordinarily, policy coordination among key players9 is unnecessary, because floating exchange rates, accompanying l0 monetary policies, and independent central banks do their job to facilitate adjustment to any shocks hitting the world economy. 11 But when the sustainability of the sources of financel2 for global payment imbalances is in doubt, as it is at present, multilateral cooperation to prevent sudden and disorderly market reactions becomes highly desirable13, especially if the growing global imbalances create pressure for protectionist trade policies in some countries.

                                Developing countries, in particular, have much to gain from multilateral cooperation, and much to lose from its absence14, and they would suffer disproportionately if instability were induced and a disorderly unwinding of global financial imbalances ensued. The world economy is moving toward a multipolar international monetary system in which the monetary and financial policies of the United States, Euro Area, Japan, and several key emerging market economies, including China, all exert substantial influence. Policymakers in emerging market economies should therefore strive to strengthen institutions and promote policies and mechanisms that will improve their ability to navigate in a world of increasingly integrated and interdependent financial and production systems. 15

                                第二篇

                                漢譯英

                                尊重知識產權,推動自主創新

                                改革開放以來,中國經濟飛速發展,對外貿易成績顯著1。中國經濟和對外貿易發展的良好局面來之不易,這與我國政府尊重和重視知識產權是分不開的。隨著科學技術的發展、知識經濟的興起和經濟全球化進程的加快,知識產權的重要性得到了歷史性提升。經過二十多年的努力,中國知識產權事業全面發展,為鼓勵自主創新,增強自主研發能力,提高國際競爭力提供了堅實基礎和有力保障2。

                                當今世界,知識產權制度的變革與發展已進入一個空前活躍的階段,知識產權在世界經濟、科技和貿易中的重要地位日益顯現,并成為促進一個國家經濟發展的至關重要的因素。

                                強化知識產權制度,已成為世界各國發展科技、經濟和增強國力的必然選擇。3日本明確提出從科技立國到知識產權立國的基本國策;4美國將知識產權當作國家基礎性的戰略資源,把強化知識產權保護作為重要的競爭手段,把深化知識產權管理特別是對專利的管理作為指導科技創新、經濟結構調整以及產業技術結構優化升級的重要手段。從國際大環境來看,知識產權保護范圍正在不斷擴大,知識產權保護水平正在進一步提高,圍繞知識產權的競爭日益加劇5。知識產權已成為連接技術、經濟和貿易的紐帶。

                                未來15年,是中國走新型工業化道路,實現全面建設小康社會奮斗目標的關鍵時期,也是我國實現貿易大國向貿易強國跨越的關鍵時期。6要實現外貿增長方式的根本轉變,提高對外貿易的質量和效益,就必須重視自主知識產權和自主品牌7的帶動作用,通過加強知識產權制度建設,提高企業自主創新能力和核心競爭力。沒有完善的知識產權保護體系,中國的自主創新的能力就不可能得到釋放,8這不僅關系中國的形象,更影響我們自身的發展,事關中國的利益。9本世紀前20年,是中國走新型工業化道路,全面建設小康社會,加速現代化建設進程的戰略機遇期。我們要牢牢把握機遇,利用和保護知識產權,培育和推動企業自主創新能力建設,加快創造和培育中國高科技的自主知識產權和自主品牌的步伐。我們要讓全世界知道,中國不是只有價廉物美的紡織品和輕工產品,還有更多體現中華民族聰明才智的自主知識產權高新技術產品和自主品牌。

                                參考譯文

                                Rejuvenating Trade through Science and Technology and IPR Protection

                                Since reform and opening up, China's economy has been developing rapidly with tremendous achievements in foreign trade. The upbeat situation of China's economy and foreign trade is hard won, and is inseparable from the respect and attention paid by the Chinese government to IPR protection. With the development of science and technology, the rise of knowledge-based economy, and the acceleration of economic globalization, the importance of intellectual property has been enhanced historically, Through efforts over the last two decades, intellectual property has gained overall development in China, thus laying a solid foundation and constituting a strong guarantee for encouraging independent innovation, strengthening independent research and development capacity, and boosting international competitiveness.

                                In today's world, the reform and development of IPR system has entered an unprecedentedly dynamic stage. Intellectual property has played an increasingly prominent role in world economy, science and technology and trade, as well as a vital factor behind a nation's economic growth. To strengthen their IPR protection system has become a natural choice for countries that wish to develop science, technology and economy and enhance national strength. Japan has explicitly put forward the basic state policy of "building the country through intellectual property", replacing the previous one of "building the country through science and technology". The U.S. takes intellectual property as a fundamental national strategic resource. It identifies IPR protection as an important tool in competition, and deepening IPR management, especially patent management, as a significant instrument to guide technological innovation, economic restructuring and optimization and upgrading of industrial technological structure. In this global context, the coverage of IPR protection is widening, the level of protection is becoming higher, and competition centering on IPR is getting ever fiercer. Intellectual property has become a bridge linking technology, economy and trade.

                                The coming 15 years is a crucial period for China to take a new approach to industrialization and realize the objective of building a well-off society in an all-round way, and also a crucial period for China to transform itself from a big trading country to a strong trading power. The fundamental transformation of the developmental mode of foreign trade and improvement of the quality and effect of foreign trade demand attention to the driving role of proprietary IPR and brands. Through a strengthened IPR system, the innovation capability and core competitiveness of enterprises will be enhanced. Without a sound IPR protection system, it will be impossible for China to release its independent innovation capability. That has a bearing not only on China's image but also on her development and her interests.

                                The first 2 decades of this century is a period of strategic opportunities for China to take a new approach to industrialization, build a well-off society in an all-round way and expedite the modernization drive. We must grip the opportunities, protect and utilize IPR, foster and promote capacity building among enterprises for independent innovation, and accelerate the creation and cultivation of China's proprietary IPR and brands in the high-tech sector. We will show the whole world that China not only makes textile and light industry products featuring low price and good quality , but also makes high-tech products and brands with proprietary IPR that speak for the talent and wisdom of the Chinese nation.

                                第三篇

                                漢譯英

                                過去十年中,世界資本市場完成了全球化的變革。在未來十年里,全球化將復制到整個經濟的其他各個領域當中。具有國際性眼光成為企業管理的核心要素。缺乏這樣的眼光,管理者就等于閉目塞聽,在無知經營,對周遭發生的情況和變化一無所知。

                                而到了下個世紀,勞動力構成將與本世紀發生很大的不同,一方面是由于經濟的全球化,另一方面則是由于人口的流動。到那時,大多數公司將會雇用更多的外國員工。你和老板極有可能就是不同國籍的。人口和社會風尚方面出現的變化意味著,社會上女性和少數民族的地位不斷提升,白人男子將變成勞動力群體的少數。所有這些都要求傳統的勞動力管理方式作出改變。

                                另外,過去人們認為采用批量生產和參與型管理模式無法保證產品和服務的優質。要獲得優質的產品和服務,客觀要求具有更高教育素質和專門技術的勞動者。要求生產工人有能力做數據質控;有能力做即時盤存。管理者的管理方式,將很快從“不必思考,照我的話去做”的老一套轉變為“自己思考,我不會教你怎么做”的新方式。

                                參考譯文

                                The globalization of the world's capital markets that has occurred in the past 10 years will be replicated right across the economy in the next decade. An international perspective has become central to management. Without it managers are operating in ignorance and cannot understand what is happening to them and their firms.

                                Partly because of globalization and partly because of demography, the work forces of the next century are going to be very different from those of the last century. Most firms will be employing more foreign nationals. More likely than not, you and your boss will not be of the same nationality. Demography and changing social mores mean that white males will become a smaller fraction of the work force as women and nunorities grow in importance. All of these factors will require changes in the traditional methods of managing the work force.

                                In addition, the need to produce goods and services at quality levels previously thought impossible to obtain in mass production and the spreading use of participatory management techniques will require a work force with much higher levels of education and skills. Production workers must be able to do statistical quality control; production workers must be able to do just- in-time inventories. Managers are increasingly shifting from a "don't think do what you are told" to a "think, I am not going to tell you what to do" style of management.

                                第四篇

                                漢譯英

                                隨著社會主義市場經濟的逐步完善,中國大多數企業的社會責任意識也在不斷增強。它們恪守誠信,合法經營,努力為國內外消費者提供高質量的商品,注重節約,保護環境,努力履行社會義務。一些企業還主動發布社會責任報告,公開履行社會責任狀況,自覺接受社會監督。當然,受經濟發展水平和發展階段的制約,中國經濟增長方式還比較粗放,能源資源消耗多,環境保護壓力大,少數企業還存在一些片面追求經濟效益、忽視社會責任的行為。

                                企業社會責任運動自上世紀80年代興起后,已經成為世界潮流。強調企業社會責任,就是要求企業對投資者負責的同時,對員工負責,對消費者負責,對商業伙伴負責,對環境和社會負責。國內外企業的成功經驗表明,社會責任也是企業的品牌,是企業核心競爭力的組成部分,是企業長盛不衰的重要法寶。企業要生存和發展,就必須增強社會責任意識,積極履行社會義務。我們有理由相信,未來的企業競爭,將不再僅僅是產品的競爭、技術的競爭和人才的競爭,更是履行社會責任的競爭。“贈人玫瑰,手有余香”。企業在履行社會責任、促進社會和諧的同時,自身也會得到更大的發展。

                                參考譯文

                                As the socialist market economy gradually improves, there is also a growing sense of social responsibility among the vast majority of Chinese companies. They abide by the code of ethics and lawful operation and are committed to providing high-quality products for domestic and foreign consumers. They pay attention to conservation, environmental protection and CSR fulfillment.

                                Some companies go even further by publishing their CSR reports to disclose their CSR performance and to voluntarily subject themselves to public scrutiny. Of course, constrained by the level and stage of its economic development, China still practices a rough-edged economic growth model, featuring high energy and resources consumption and high environmental costs. A handful of companies are still single-mindedly seeking profits and turning a blind eye to their social responsibilities.

                                Since the 1980s, CSR has become to a global trend. Putting emphasis on CSR means companies not only have to be responsible to their investors, but also to their employees, customers, business partners, and to the environment and society. International success stories also show that CSR is part of a company's brand image and its core competitiveness. It is a vital source of sustained prosperity for business. So in order to survive and grow, it is imperative that companies should raise their CSR awareness and actively fulfill their social responsibilities. We have every reason to believe that future business competition will diversify from specific products, technology and talents toward CSR performance. As the proverb goes, "The rose is in her hand and the fragrance in mine". Companies benefit from their efforts to honor CSR and promote social harmony.

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